Leborg Visual Grammar shows us more relations in structure. Coordination is the idea of replications of an object. It has the same value, focus and perspective. Distance shows closeness and remoteness to be relative to the point of view from which the viewer is seeing the art. Parallels are when two lines are perfectly and never intersect with each other. An angle is the negative space between two intersecting lines. Positive and negative space touches on two opposite values. If you had a large black square in the center of a white canvas, the positive space would be the black square and the negative space would be what inhabits everything else around it. The negative space defines the positive space and its shape. Transparent objects are those that are able to be seen through. The example shown in the book is a red circle but it shows the layers behind it and becomes less saturated. An opaque object is the opposite. It is not see-through. It doesn’t let light through to the other side. It is a solid form. A tangent is a point in which two objects share a same coordinate or coordinates. Overlapping is when an object rests on top of another object and removes the full visibility of the second object. Compound is when those overlapping objects become morphed together to create a new object. Subtraction is the idea of taking the top overlapping object and remove it from the composition only leaving the remainder of the second form.

In the art of transparency by Bilge Sayim and Patrick Cavanagh the first example given of what transparency is, is a glass of water with a paintbrush in it. The figure takes the idea of transparency and brings science into it. Image A was an unaltered photo which shows the transparency of the water to show the brush inside while image B was altered to get rid of the refraction but still keeping the transparency. The idea behind this is to show perspective which is also something that Leborg spoke on. The distance between two objects can be relative to the viewer. If you add water and refraction to the mix, the viewer perceives a difference in distance between the brush outside the water and the brush inside the water. This article was big on pointing out the x-junction in relation to two objects where one or both of the objects have transparency. It shows various art pieces throughout history that have the use of transparency within them. In most cases such as Nighthawk by Edward Hooper shows transparency not through abstract forms but by trying to mimic a physical object accurately. Glass and cloth are classic examples of this transparency.



This image shows the contrast between color and the joining of color through the use of transparency. The amount of detail and knowledge in color theory is what makes this image great.



I really like this example of distance. The Eiffel tower in Paris is 984 feet tall and yet when put into perspective by placing this hand where it is makes it seem small like a key chain.



This example of positive and negative space I really intricate. Creating an image from both colors to the point where it is almost a matter of perspective what is the positive and what the negative space is.



This image is a representation of angles. There is a variety of space between where each line intersects with another. The colors almost add the illusion of dimension as well.